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    热锻模具钢的热锻方法

    来源:/ 日期:2022-05-20 发布人:admin


    热锻模具钢的热锻是在必定的温度规划内进行的。钢的铸造温度规划是指初步铸造温度(始锻温度)与完毕铸造温度(终锻温度)之间的一段温度区间。
    The hot forging of hot forging die steel is carried out within a certain temperature plan. The casting temperature planning of steel refers to a temperature range between the initial casting temperature (initial forging temperature) and the finished casting temperature (final forging temperature).
    确认铸造温度规划的基本原则是:保证钢有较高的塑性,较低的变形抗力,得到高质量锻件,一同铸造温度规划尽可能广大些,以便削减加热火次,进步铸造生产率。确认铸造温度规划的基本办法是:以钢的平衡图为基础,再参考钢的塑性图、抗力求和再结晶图,由塑性、质量和变形抗力三方面加以归纳剖析,从而定出始锻温度和终锻温度。一般,碳钢的铸造温度规划依据铁一碳平衡图便可直接确认。关于大都合金结构钢的铸造温度规划,能够参照含碳量相同的碳钢来考虑。但对塑性较低的高合金钢,以及不发作相变的钢种(如奥氏体钢,纯铁体钢),则需要通过试验,才干得出合理的铸造温度规划。
    The basic principle of confirming the casting temperature planning is to ensure that the steel has high plasticity and low deformation resistance, so as to obtain high-quality forgings. The casting temperature planning should be as broad as possible, so as to reduce the heating fire and improve the casting productivity. The basic method to confirm the casting temperature planning is to determine the initial forging temperature and final forging temperature by summarizing and analyzing the plasticity, quality and deformation resistance based on the balance diagram of steel, and then referring to the plasticity diagram, resistance summation and recrystallization diagram of steel. Generally, the casting temperature planning of carbon steel can be directly confirmed according to the iron carbon balance diagram. The casting temperature planning of Dadu alloy structural steel can be considered with reference to carbon steel with the same carbon content. However, for high alloy steels with low plasticity and steels without phase transformation (such as austenitic steel and pure ferritic steel), it is necessary to obtain a reasonable casting temperature plan through tests.
    温度的确认
    Confirmation of temperature
    确认钢的始锻温度,有必要保证钢无过烧现象。因而对碳钢来讲,始锻温度应低于铁-碳平衡图的始熔线150~250℃,见图9-5所示。此外,还应考虑到毛坯组织、铸造方法和变形工艺等要素。碳钢铸造温度规划碳钢铸造温度规划。
    To confirm the initial forging temperature of steel, it is necessary to ensure that the steel is free from overburning. Therefore, for carbon steel, the initial forging temperature should be 150 ~ 250 ℃ lower than the initial melting line of iron carbon balance diagram, as shown in Figure 9-5. In addition, factors such as blank structure, casting method and deformation process should also be considered. Carbon steel casting temperature planning.
    热锻模具钢;终锻温度
    Hot forging die steel; Final forging temperature
    在确认终锻温度时,既要保证钢在终锻前具有满意的塑性,又要使锻件能够获得的组织功能。因而,钢的终锻温度应高于再结晶温度,以保证锻后再结晶完全,使锻件得到细晶粒组织。就碳钢而言,终锻温度不能低于铁一碳平衡图的A1线。不然,塑性显着下降,变形抗力大,加工硬化现象严峻,简单发作铸造裂纹。关于亚共析钢,终锻温度应在A3线以上15~50℃,因位于单相奥氏体区。组织均一而塑性。可是对低碳钢(含碳量小于0.3%),终锻温度能够降到A3线以下,虽然处于(γ+α)双相区,仍具有满意的塑性,变形抗力也不太高,而且还扩展了铸造温度规划。
    When confirming the final forging temperature, it is necessary not only to ensure that the steel has satisfactory plasticity before final forging, but also to enable the forging to obtain satisfactory microstructure and function. Therefore, the final forging temperature of steel should be higher than the recrystallization temperature to ensure complete recrystallization after forging and obtain fine grain structure. For carbon steel, the final forging temperature shall not be lower than the A1 line of the iron carbon balance diagram. Otherwise, the plasticity decreases significantly, the deformation resistance is large, the work hardening phenomenon is severe, and the casting cracks simply occur. For hypoeutectoid steel, the final forging temperature should be 15 ~ 50 ℃ above A3 line, because it is located in single-phase austenite zone. The structure is homogeneous and plastic. However, for low carbon steel (carbon content less than 0.3%), the final forging temperature can be reduced below A3 line, although it is at( γ+α) The dual phase region still has satisfactory plasticity, the deformation resistance is not too high, and the casting temperature planning is extended.
    关于过共析钢,终锻温度应在Acm线以下,A1线以上50~100℃。这是因为,若终锻温度选在Acm线以上,则会在锻后的冷却过程中,沿着晶界分出二次网状渗碳体,将使锻件的力学功能大为下降。如在Acm线与A1线之间铸造,因为塑性变形的机械破碎作用,可使分出的二次渗碳体呈弥散状。
    For hypereutectoid steel, the final forging temperature shall be below ACM line and 50 ~ 100 ℃ above A1 line. This is because if the final forging temperature is above the ACM line, the secondary network cementite will be separated along the grain boundary during the cooling process after forging, which will greatly reduce the mechanical function of the forging. If cast between ACM line and A1 line, the separated secondary cementite can be dispersed due to the mechanical crushing effect of plastic deformation.
    还须指出,钢的终锻温度与钢的组织、铸造工序和后续工序等也有关。关于无相变的钢种,因为不能用热处理办法细化晶粒,只需依托铸造来控制晶粒度。为了使锻件获得细微晶粒,这类钢的终锻温度一般偏低。当锻后当即进行锻件余热热处理时,终锻温度应满意余热热处理的要求。如锻件的原料为低碳钢,终锻温度则稍高于A。线。
    It should also be pointed out that the final forging temperature of steel is also related to the structure, casting process and subsequent process of steel. For the steel without phase transformation, because the grain cannot be refined by heat treatment, the grain size only needs to be controlled by casting. In order to obtain fine grains, the final forging temperature of this kind of steel is generally low. When the residual heat treatment of forgings is carried out immediately after forging, the final forging temperature shall meet the requirements of residual heat treatment. If the raw material of the forging is low carbon steel, the final forging temperature is slightly higher than a. Line.
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